vendredi 24 avril 2009
par   G. Grégori

Akerlund T, Nordstrom K, Bernander R (1995) Analysis of cell size and DNA content in exponentially growing and stationary-phase batch cultures of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 177 :6791-6797


Escherichia coli strains were grown in batch cultures in different media, and cell size and DNA content were analyzed by flow cytometry. Steady-state growth required large dilutions and incubation for many generations at low cell concentrations. In rich media, both cell size and DNA content started to decrease at low cell concentrations, long before the cultures left the exponential growth phase. Stationary-phase cultures contained cells with several chromosomes, even after many days, and stationary-phase populations exclusively composed of cells with a single chromosome were never observed, regardless of growth medium. The cells usually contained only one nucleoid, as visualized by phase and fluorescence microscopy. The results have implications for the use of batch cultures to study steady-state and balanced growth and to determine mutation and recombination frequencies in stationary phase.

Arroyo J, Alvarez AM, Nombela C, Sanchez-Perez M (1995) The role of HLA-DP beta residue 69 in the definition of antibody-binding epitopes. Hum Immunol 43 :219-226


Residue 69 of the DP beta chain has been previously identified as being involved in T-cell recognition as well as in the susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases. The codon for Glu 69 in the DPB1*02012 allele was changed to the codon for Lys found in DPB1*0402, and transfectant L cells expressing wild-type or mutant HLA-DP molecule were obtained. The binding of a large panel of mAbs to these transfectants was tested by flow cytometry. Glu to Lys 69 substitution decreased the binding to the DPB1*02012 allele of some of the DP mAbs and completely eliminated the binding of four of the antibodies tested. These results clearly showed that this residue is involved in the formation of DP antibody-binding epitopes. Because this residue should be located in the alpha-helix of the DP beta polypeptide with the side chain pointing into the peptide-binding groove, its implication in the definition in some DP antibody-binding epitopes should be (a) defining conformational epitopes through effects on the conformation of adjacent regions of the molecule, and (b) determining the binding of peptides to the DP cleft which is directly or indirectly involved in these epitopes.

Baseman JB, Lange M, Criscimagna NL, Giron JA, Thomas CA (1995) Interplay between mycoplasmas and host target cells. Microb Pathog 19 :105-116


The infectious pattern of mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma penetrans, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium) in mammalian cells was examined using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry combined with cell fractionation and mycoplasma viability determinations. Within 2 h postinfection mycoplasmas parasitize cell surfaces, enter the intracellular spaces and locate throughout the cytoplasmic and perinuclear regions. These mycoplasmas can be cultivated from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions 96 h later and continue to persist intracellularly for at least 7 days, suggesting a much more active intracellular role for mycoplasmas than had been considered previously.

Bellosta P, Costa M, Lin DA, Basilico C (1995) The receptor tyrosine kinase ARK mediates cell aggregation by homophilic binding. Mol Cell Biol 15 :614-625


The ARK (AXL, UFO) receptor is a member of a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases whose extracellular domain contains a combination of fibronectin type III and immunoglobulin motifs similar to those found in many cell adhesion molecules. ARK mRNA is expressed at high levels in the mouse brain, prevalently in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and this pattern of expression resembles that of adhesion molecules that are capable of promoting cell aggregation through homophilic or heterophilic binding. We report here the ability of the murine ARK receptor to mediate homophilic binding. Expression of the ARK protein in Drosophila S2 cells induces formation of cell aggregates consisting of ARK-expressing cells, and aggregation leads to receptor activation, with an increase in receptor phosphorylation. Homophilic binding does not require ARK tyrosine kinase activity, since S2 cells expressing a receptor in which the intracellular domain was deleted were able to undergo aggregation as well as cells expressing the wild-type ARK receptor. Similar results were obtained with NIH 3T3 and CHO cells expressing high levels of ARK, although in this case ARK expression appeared to be accompanied by constitutive activation. The purified recombinant extracellular domain of ARK can induce homotypic aggregation of coated fluorescent beads (Covaspheres), and this protein can also function as a substrate for adhesion by S2 and NIH 3T3 cells expressing ARK. These results suggest that ARK represents a new cell adhesion molecule that through its homophilic interaction may regulate cellular functions during cell recognition.

Bendel CM, St Sauver J, Carlson S, Hostetter MK (1995) Epithelial adhesion in yeast species : correlation with surface expression of the integrin analog. J Infect Dis 171 :1660-1663


Epithelial adhesion and expression of the integrin analog, a putative candidal adhesion, were correlated for 33 clinical and laboratory isolates of Candida albicans, other Candida species, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On flow cytometry with saturating concentrations of the monoclonal antibody OKM1, surface fluorescence was highest for C. albicans at 67.8% +/- 1.7% and significantly reduced for Candida tropicalis (32.0% +/- 2.6%), Candida parapsilosis (18.3% +/- 2.4%), Candida glabrata (3.3% +/- 0.8%), Candida lusitaniae (2.9% +/- 1.0%), Candida krusei (0.7% +/- 0.1%), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1.7% +/- 0.2%) (P < .006 for all other species vs. C. albicans). Adhesion to a human epithelial cell line was highest for C. albicans at 49.8% +/- 3.5%, lower for C. tropicalis (44.7% +/- 4.6%), and incrementally reduced for all other species (< 25%) (P < .012). The correlation between integrin expression and epithelial adhesion was highly significant (P = .0066 ; r2 = .8). Surface expression of the integrin analog predicts epithelial adhesion for yeast species isolated in opportunistic infections.

Breeuwer P, Drocourt JL, Bunschoten N, Zwietering MH, Rombouts FM, Abee T (1995) Characterization of uptake and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate and carboxyfluorescein diacetate by intracellular esterases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which result in accumulation of fluorescent product. Appl Environ Microbiol 61 :1614-1619


Flow cytometry is a rapid and sensitive method which may be used for the detection of microorganisms in foods and drinks. A key requirement for this method is a sufficient fluorescence staining of the target cells. The mechanism of staining of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and 5- (and 6-)carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) was studied in detail. The uptake rate of the prefluorochromes increased in direct proportion to the concentration and was not saturable, which suggests that transport occurs via a passive diffusion process. The permeability coefficient for cFDA was 1.3 x 10(-8) m s-1. Once inside the cell, the esters were hydrolyzed by intracellular esterases and their fluorescent products accumulated. FDA hydrolysis (at 40 degrees C) in cell extracts could be described by first-order reaction kinetics, and a rate constant (K) of 0.33 s-1 was calculated. Hydrolysis of cFDA (at 40 degrees C) in cell extracts was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an apparent Vmax and Km of 12.3 nmol.min-1.mg of protein-1 and 0.29 mM, respectively. Accumulation of fluorescein was most likely limited by the esterase activity, since transport of FDA was faster than the hydrolysis rate. In contrast, accumulation of carboxyfluorescein was limited by the much slower transport of cFDA through the cell envelope. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe the fluorescence staining. The implications for optimal staining of yeast cells with FDA and cFDA are discussed.

Burton JL, Kehrli ME, Jr. (1995) Regulation of neutrophil adhesion molecules and shedding of Staphylococcus aureus in milk of cortisol- and dexamethasone-treated cows. Am J Vet Res 56 :997-1006


The effects of 3 days of glucocorticoid administration on bovine blood neutrophil expression of L-selectin and CD18, and on the health status of mammary glands subclinically infected with Staphylococcus aureus were measured in 9 lactating Holsteins. The experiment was a 3 x 3 Latin square cross-over design, with 3 glucocorticoid treatments switched among groups of 3 cows/treatment during 3 periods. Treatments consisted of a vehicle (control, 10 ml of excipient/cow/d), cortisol (7.5, 15, and 7.5 mg/cow on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and dexamethasone (0.04 mg/kg of body weight/cow/d for total daily dosages that ranged from 21.6 to 33.2 mg). Blood samples for immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis of L-selectin and CD18 and leukograms, as well as foremilk samples for determination of S aureus shedding, somatic cell counts, protein and fat percentages, and daily milk yields were collected repeatedly before, during, and after treatment days. Dexamethasone caused a profound, acute, short-lived down-regulation of L-selectin on neutrophils, which correlated in time to leukocytosis, mature and immature neutrophilias, increased shedding of S aureus in infected glands, and onset of high percentages of fat and protein and decreased milk yields. Dexamethasone also caused profound but delayed down-regulation of neutrophil CD18, which reached nadir simultaneously with reappearance of L-selectin-bearing neutrophils, normalized blood neutrophil counts, markedly high foremilk somatic cell counts and protein percentage, decreased S aureus shedding in milk, and finally, expression of clinical mastitis in some infected quarters. Each of these variables had returned to control (vehicle) values by the ninth (and last) sample collection day. Although cortisol treatment also decreased expression of L-selectin and CD18 on neutrophils, dosages used in this study were not sufficient to alter the number of circulating cells or to convert subclinical mammary gland infections to clinical mastitis. These results suggest that mammary gland health status can be altered by sudden exposure of blood neutrophils to glucocorticoids, because these steroid hormones caused profound down-regulation of the adhesion molecules that direct neutrophil margination and migration through the vascular endothelium. The results also reinforce the potential disease risk of treating infected animals with potent synthetic glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone.

Costantino PJ, Budd DE, Gare NF (1995) Enumeration of viable Candida albicans blastospores using tetrabromofluorescein (eosin Y) and flow cytometry. Cytometry 19 :370-375


A rapid assay was developed for determination of the viability of blastospores of Candida albicans utilizing flow cytometry to detect the accumulation of tetrabromofluorescein in non-viable yeast cells. Eosin Y was shown to stain non-viable C. albicans blastospores selectively without affecting the cellular viability of competent yeast cells or resulting in non-specific staining of viable cells. Results of these studies show that this flow cytometric method of determining cell viability of C. albicans is more accurate and more precise than the more common method of enumerating colony forming units.

Dahlgren C, Carlsson SR, Karlsson A, Lundqvist H, Sjolin C (1995) The lysosomal membrane glycoproteins Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 are present in mobilizable organelles, but are absent from the azurophil granules of human neutrophils. Biochem J 311 ( Pt 2) :667-674


The subcellular localization of two members of a highly glycosylated protein group present in lysosomal membranes in most cells, the lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (Lamp-1 and Lamp-2), was examined in human neutrophil granulocytes. Antibodies that were raised against purified Lamp-1 adn Lamp-2 gave a distinct granular staining of the cytoplasm upon immunostaining of neutrophils. Subcellular fractionation was used to separate the azurophil and specific granules from a light-membrane fraction containing plasma membranes and secretory vesicles, and Western blotting was used to determine the presence of the Lamps in these fractions. The results show that Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 are present in the specific-granule-enriched fraction and in the light-membrane fraction, but not in the azurophil granules. Separation of secretory vesicles from plasma membranes disclosed that the light-membrane Lamps were present primarily in the secretory-vesicle-enriched fraction. During phagocytosis both Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 became markedly concentrated around the ingested particle and they both appear on the cell surface when the secretory organelles are mobilized.

Davis WC, Davis JE, Hamilton MJ (1995) Use of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry to cluster and analyze leukocyte differentiation molecules. Methods Mol Biol 45 :149-167


De Filippo AB, Ellen RP, McCulloch CA (1995) Induction of cytoskeletal rearrangements and loss of volume regulation in epithelial cells by Treponema denticola. Arch Oral Biol 40 :199-207


The early responses of oral epithelial cells to the adhesion of the oral spirochaete Treponema denticola were studied as a model of microbial perturbation of the plasma membrane. KB cell (ATCC CCL 17) monolayers were incubated with T. denticola (ATCC 35405) in alpha-MEM (minimal essential medium) for periods of 1-4 h at 37 degrees C without serum. Control cultures were exposed to bacteria-conditioned alpha-MEM without serum or bacteria or to alpha-MEM alone. At the end of each incubation, detached and attached epithelial cells were harvested and analysed separately. Compared with controls, T. denticola induced in 25% of cells a two-fold, time-dependent increase of detachment by 4 h. Detached cells in both T. denticola-exposed and control cultures exhibited 25% reductions in modal diameter, did not exclude propidium iodide, did not readhere, and did not form colonies. In T. denticola-exposed cultures, a larger subset (75%) of cells remained attached to the substratum, demonstrated no significant reduction of colony-forming efficiency and excluded propidium iodide. However, these cells exhibited a 21% reduction in diameter (p < 0.05), a 60% decrease of F-actin (p < 0.001), and a 74% reduction in the proportion expressing desmoplakin II (p < 0.01) after exposure to T. denticola. Flow cytometry showed a small (14%) but significant (p < 0.001) reduction in mean fluorescence intensity due to keratin expression in T. denticola-treated cultures. Exposure of cells to anisosmotic media demonstrated that, in contrast to controls, cultures challenged by bacteria failed to undergo compensatory volume regulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Deere D, Porter J, Edwards C, Pickup R (1995) Evaluation of the suitability of bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol, (diBA-C4(3)-), for the flow cytometric assessment of bacterial viability. FEMS Microbiol Lett 130 :165-169


The usefulness of oxonol (bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol) as a generally applicable indicator of bacterial viability was investigated using untreated and killed cultures of a variety of bacterial genera. Killing methods involved either heat or bactericidal antibiotics. For all strains tested, the fluorescent dye showed significantly more intense staining of killed than untreated cells. The sensitivity of Aeromonas salmonicida to gentamicin was assessed using oxonol. Although the bacterium was shown to be sensitive to the antibiotic, there was a delay between the time cells lost culturability, as judged by numbers of colony forming units, and that for which a dead cell population could be detected by flow cytometry.

Dumortier F, Arguelles JC, Thevelein JM (1995) Constitutive glucose-induced activation of the Ras-cAMP pathway and aberrant stationary-phase entry on a glucose-containing medium in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae glucose-repression mutant hex2. Microbiology 141 ( Pt 7) :1559-1566


Addition of glucose to cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on a nonfermentable carbon source triggers a rapid, transient increase in the cAMP level. The occurrence of this cAMP spike appears to be correlated inversely with the glucose-repression state of the cells. This was also observed for the hex2 mutant, which is deficient in glucose repression and which displayed the cAMP signal constitutively. When cells of the hex2 mutant were starved for nitrogen on a glucose-containing medium, they rapidly lost viability, similarly to mutants with overactivation of the Ras-adenylate cyclase pathway. Flow cytometry measurements showed that G1 arrest of the hex2 mutant under such conditions was incomplete. Trehalose accumulation, a typical feature of cells entering the stationary phase G0, was very short-lived in the hex2 mutant under the same conditions. These results are in agreement with the presence of continuous glucose-triggered activation of cAMP synthesis in hex2 cells on a glucose-containing nitrogen-starvation medium. In the course of these experiments a spontaneous suppressor mutant, shx (for suppressor of hex2), was isolated which survived nitrogen starvation on a glucose-containing medium much better than the hex2 strain. It also showed normal G1 arrest and much longer accumulation of trehalose. The suppressor mutation also caused inability to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources and absence of invertase depression, and it was epistatic to hex2 for these characteristics also. The isolation of this epistatic depression mutation supports the idea that the defect in glucose repression of the hex2 mutant is the cause of its rapid loss of viability during nitrogen starvation on a glucose-containing medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Ferrick DA, Schrenzel MD, Mulvania T, Hsieh B, Ferlin WG, Lepper H (1995) Differential production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in response to Th1- and Th2-stimulating pathogens by gamma delta T cells in vivo. Nature 373 :255-257


Exposure to various pathogens can stimulate at least two patterns of cytokine production by CD4-positive T cells. Responses that result in secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lymphotoxin and interleukin-2 (IL-2) are classified as T-helper-1 (Th1) ; CD4+ T-cell production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 and IL-13 is called a T-helper-2 response (Th2). Differentiation of CD4+ T cells into either Th1 or Th2 cells is influenced by the cytokine milieu in which the initial antigen priming occurs. Here we use flow cytometry to identify the presence of intracellular cytokines (cytoflow) and analyse T-cell production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 from mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. We show that T cells bearing gamma delta receptors discriminate early in infection between these two pathogens by producing cytokines associated with the appropriate T-helper response. Our results demonstrate that gamma delta T cells are involved in establishing primary immune responses.

Flowers CC, Flowers SP, Jennings SR, O’Callaghan DJ (1995) Synthesis and processing of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D. Virology 208 :9-18


Previous studies (C. C. Flowers and D. J. O’Callaghan, 1992, Virology 190, 307-315) employed peptide-specific antibodies to identify the product of the glycoprotein D (gD) gene of equine herpesvirus 1 strain Kentucky A (KyA). gD polypeptides of 55 and 58 kDa were detected in EHV-1-infected L-M cells, and the 58-kDa protein was observed in the membrane fraction of EHV-1 virions. In this report, the kinetics of synthesis and processing of gD polypeptides are described. One-hour pulse-labeling of EHV-1-infected L-M cells revealed that gD proteins are first detected at 6 hr after infection and that maximal synthesis of gD occurs between 5 and 8 hr postinfection. gD polypeptides accumulate progressively with time of infection as shown by immunoprecipitation analysis of gD proteins. Pulse-chase analysis of gD revealed that the 55-kDa protein is a precursor to the 58-kDa species and that processing of all pulse-labeled precursor protein requires approximately 2.5 hr. Analysis of the carbohydrate content of gD proteins, as judged by their sensitivity to digestion with endoglycosidases, revealed that the 55-kDa gD precursor contains high-mannose N-linked oligosaccharides, while the 58-kDa gD mature polypeptide possesses complex type oligosaccharides. Expression of the mature form of gD on the cell surface, as determined by fluorescent flow cytometric analysis, is delayed compared to the accumulation of the mature form of gD within the cell. The gD ORF encodes a potential protein of 442 amino acids but analysis of the translated sequence of gD indicated that the gD polypeptide is 392 amino acids, a size predicted by previous mapping of the transcription start site of the gD mRNA. Coupled in vitro transcription/translation of a pGEM-3Z construct containing the 392-amino-acid gD ORF, in the absence or presence of canine pancreatic microsomes, demonstrated that the 43-kDa gD polypeptide undergoes processing in vitro. These studies demonstrate that the EHV-1 strain KyA gD is processed in a fashion similar to that of the gD proteins of other alphaherpesviruses.

Gaddy J, Risdon G, Broxmeyer HE (1995) Cord blood natural killer cells are functionally and phenotypically immature but readily respond to interleukin-2 and interleukin-12. J Interferon Cytokine Res 15 :527-536


Human umbilical cord blood (CB) is being increasingly used both as an alternative to bone marrow to transplant children and for experimental insight into the ontogenic and maturational characteristics of blood cells. We studied the functional and phenotypic characteristics of CB natural killer (NK) cells because of the possibly important role such cells may play in a transplant setting and to gain insight into the little known ontogenic differences and maturational pathways of NK cells. It was found that CB NK lytic activity is usually deficient and that this deficiency cannot be fully explained by the presence of insufficient percentages of CD56+ cells. Although CD16+CD56+ and CD16-CD56+ NK cell subsets typical of adult peripheral blood (PB) are present, a significant population of CD16+CD56- cells also exists in CB. CB CD16+CD56- cells have little or no lytic capabilities ; CB CD16+CD56+ cells vary in their lytic capabilities. Although a decreased ability to bind target cells may contribute to the deficient lytic activity of these CB NK cell subsets, studies suggest that other factors must also play a role. Short-term incubation with interleukin-2 (IL-2) or interleukin-12 (IL-12) substantially increases the lytic capabilities of CB NK cells, and long-term incubations induce lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell generation. Cell depletion experiments show that activated CD56+ NK cells are responsible for the lytic activity of CB LAK cells. Flow cytometric analysis reveals that during LAK cell generation, CB undergoes phenotypic changes similar to those of PB except that CD16+CD56- cells are still present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Hansen FG (1995) Reinitiation kinetics in eight dnaA(Ts) mutants of Escherichia coli : rifampicin-resistant initiation of chromosome replication. Mol Microbiol 15 :133-140


The kinetics of reinitiation of chromosome replication of eight dnaA(Ts) mutants was investigated in an isogenic set of strains. Five mutants (167, 46, 601, 606 and 5) are classified as reversible, since they can reinitiate at 30 degrees C without protein synthesis, whereas the other three (508, 205, 204) require protein synthesis. In the presence of protein synthesis, reversible mutants initiate one round of replication rapidly after a shift to 30 degrees C, indicating that they contain active or renaturable DnaA protein. The dnaA508 and dnaA204 mutants also reinitiate chromosome replication rapidly, whereas reinitiation is delayed 15-20 min in dnaA205. The dnaA508 and dnaA204 mutants might contain active DnaA protein just below the threshold level at 42 degrees C and only require synthesis of small amounts of new DnaA protein before initiation at 30 degrees C, whereas dnaA205 accumulates DnaA protein for some time at 30 degrees C before reaching the initiation threshold. Three of the reversible mutants (5, 601, and 606) exhibited, in addition to the protein synthesis-independent initiation capacity, an RNA synthesis-independent initiation capacity. The thermal stability of these initiation capacities is the same as for mutant DnaA protein, strongly suggesting that mutant DnaA protein is responsible for both.

Hansen FG, Atlung T (1995) Reversibility of DnaA protein activity in the ’irreversible’ dnaA204 mutant of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 15 :141-148


The dnaA204 mutant, one of the so-called irreversible dnaA mutants which cannot reinitiate chromosome replication upon a shift from non-permissive to permissive growth temperature in the absence of protein synthesis, was reinvestigated using flow cytometry and marker frequency analysis. In a temperature down-shift experiment and in the presence of protein synthesis the dnaA204 mutant reinitiates chromosome replication very fast. Using a lac promoter-controlled wild type or a dnaA204 mutant gene carried on a plasmid, we have observed instantaneous initiation of replication when synthesis of DnaA protein is induced in the dnaA204 mutant at 42 degrees C. The data indicate that the dnaA204 mutant after a shift to 42 degrees C still contains functional DnaA protein, but that the activity level is below the initiation threshold. Thus, after synthesis of very small amounts of additional DnaA protein, initiation occurs very fast both after a shift to 30 degrees C, and after induction of DnaA protein synthesis at 42 degrees C. A model describing the processing of DnaA protein in mutants and in the wild type is presented.

Himpens B, Proot P, Neyts J, De Smedt H, De Clercq E, Casteels R (1995) Human cytomegalovirus modulates the Ca2+ response to vasopressin and ATP in fibroblast cultures. Cell Calcium 18 :111-119


The free calcium concentrations in the nucleus ([Ca2+]n) and in cytosol ([Ca2+]c) of cultured human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts were estimated by confocal laser microscopy using the Ca(2+)-indicator Indo-1. In resting HEL cells, The free cellular Ca(2+)-concentration significantly increased upon human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. The ratio between [Ca2+]n and [Ca2+]c was not affected. Following stimulation by ATP or [Arg8] vasopressin (AVP), a differential Ca2+ response of the HCMV-infected HEL cells was observed. While uninfected cells were highly sensitive to AVP and only poorly sensitive to ATP, infected cells showed a high responsiveness to ATP but not to AVP. This switch in sensitivity to the agonists first observed at 24 h post infection. The Ca(2+)-rise following ATP or AVP stimulation was derived from intracellular Ca2+ stores. The magnitude of the ATP-induced Ca(2+)-rise increased upon infection. In contrast to non-infected cells where [Ca2+]n > [Ca2+]c during stimulation with AVP or ATP, no nucleo-cytosolic Ca(2+)-gradient was observed in infected cells. Furthermore, the magnitude of the Ca2+ rise in the two compartments was higher in ATP-stimulated cells. It is concluded that HCMV infection significantly interferes with Ca(2+)-homeostasis in HEL cells which could be related to the pathogenesis of the disease.

Irurzun A, Arroyo J, Alvarez A, Carrasco L (1995) Enhanced intracellular calcium concentration during poliovirus infection. J Virol 69 :5142-5146


The infection of human fibroblasts by poliovirus leads to a notable increase in the intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, measured by microfluorimetry or by flow cytometry. [Ca2+]i increases from 2 to 3 h postinfection, and by the fifth hour there is a 5- to 10-fold increase in [Ca2+]i. At this time postinfection there is active viral protein synthesis. The modifications in [Ca2+]i are not observed in the presence of cycloheximide, guanidine, or Ro 09-0179, indicating that virus gene expression is required for the increase in [Ca2+]i. Attempts to identify the source of the intracellular Ca2+ by using different inhibitors of calcium fluxes suggest that calcium enters from the culture medium through voltage-sensitive calcium channels.

Kakai R, Bwayo JJ, Wamola IA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJ, Anzala AO, Plummer FA (1995) Breastfeeding and immunity to intestinal infections. East Afr Med J 72 :150-154


The purpose of this study was to compare immune response in breast and non breastfed children presenting with diarrhoea at Paediatric Observation Ward, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH-POW) and Maternal and Child Health Clinic, Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH-MCH). Blood and stool samples were collected from the first four consecutive children aged 5 years and below per day, presenting with or without diarrhoea from January to December, 1992. The stools were tested for total IgA by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) and specific IgA by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 enumeration was done by flow cytometry. Stools were cultured for bacteria on selective media while ova and cysts of parasites were identified by wet preparation microscopy. A total of 457 children were enrolled into the study, 69.6% of whom presented with diarrhoea. Breastfed children tended to have a shorter duration of diarrhoea than either mixed fed or bottle fed (8.3 vs 9.8 vs 11.2 days, p = 0.2). In general, E. coli were more commonly isolated from breastfed than mixed fed or bottle fed (56.7% vs 43.9% vs 28.9%, p = 0.004) while intestinal parasites were mostly in bottle fed than mixed or breastfed children (28.8% vs 8.2 vs 0.8, p < 0.004). However, when children with diarrhoea were considered, E. coli was more frequently isolated from bottle fed children who presented with diarrhoea than without (26.7% vs 7.7%, p = 0.03).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Kapur R, Evans DL, Harris DT (1995) An evolutionary conserved target cell antigen along with MHC class I molecules influences susceptibility to murine NK cell lysis. Dev Comp Immunol 19 :347-355


We have previously characterized a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed 18C2, which binds to and inhibits the lysis of target cells by human natural killer (NK) cells. We now show that the anti-target cell mAb 18C2 also recognizes a similar structure on the murine NK sensitive target cell YAC-1, as well as on NK resistant target cells P815 and EL-4, as observed by flow cytometry. Functional studies demonstrated that the mAb 18C2 inhibited the lysis of both NK sensitive YAC-1 target cells, as well as NK resistant target cell lines P815 and EL-4 by freshly-isolated nylon wool nonadherent (NWNA) NK cells, 5-day lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells and adherent lymphokine activated killer (ALAK) cells. The inhibitory activity of the mAb 18C2 occurred at the target cell level only. Single cell conjugate assays as demonstrated that the structure recognized by the mAb 18C2 was involved in recognition between NK cells and NK target cells, as the mAb inhibited conjugate formation between a variety of effector cells and various target cell lines tested. Further, the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens in NK cell cytotoxicity was examined. We observed that target cells expressing low levels of MHC class I antigens in association with the novel target cell antigen were more sensitive to NK cell lysis, as compared to cells that co-express higher levels of MHC class I antigen and the target cell antigen. Further, the presence of this antigen across different species suggests this target cell antigen/structure to be highly evolutionarily conserved.

Kelly DJ, Salata KF, Strickman D, Hershey JN (1995) Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection in cell culture : antibiotic susceptibility determined by flow cytometry. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53 :602-606


Recent unpublished reports from northern Thailand of severe and sometimes fatal cases of scrub typhus, despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, suggest that resistance may occur. Current antibiotic susceptibility methods that use direct microscopic counts of Giemsa-stained cells or mouse protection assays are slow, labor-intensive, and expensive. We explored the use of flow cytometry to measure rickettsial infection in vitro in L-929 cells treated with and without doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol. It was possible to detect the rickettsiae down to a level of 83% of the cells infected, mean of 37 rickettsiae per cell, and 40% of cells with too many rickettsiae to count. This level of sensitivity was sufficient to determine the inhibitory effect of all four drugs at standard screening concentrations. At lower concentrations of doxycycline, flow cytometry detected inhibition of rickettsial growth at a concentration of 6.25 x 10(-2) micrograms/ml but not at 6.25 x 10(-3) micrograms/ml, suggesting that the minimum inhibitory concentration is somewhere between these two values. The data from this study show that flow cytometry permits the rapid screening of numerous rickettsial isolates for their susceptibility to a variety of antibiotics, but that visual counts of infected cells provide a more precise indication of rickettsial growth.

Kermani P, Peloquin L, Lagace J (1995) Production of ScFv antibody fragments following immunization with a phage-displayed fusion protein and analysis of reactivity to surface-exposed epitopes of the protein F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by cytofluorometry. Hybridoma 14 :323-328


To increase the possibilities of obtaining antibodies to surface-exposed epitopes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein F, we immunized mice with cloned and expressed oprF gene as a gIII-fusion protein displayed on the M13 phage surface. The fusion protein elicited mouse antibodies reacting with the purified protein F at a limit dilution of 1:10,000. Recombinant clones expressing antibody fragments were constructed from the genes of selected B cells of hyperimmunized mouse after a first round of panning against the protein F. Expression of single chain Fv (ScFv) antibody fragments to the protein of P. aeruginosa was detected by ELISA in 20 of 384 clones obtained after the first panning selection. The 20 positive clones recognizing different protein F epitopes as demonstrated by ELISA were assayed by flow cytometry to identify antibody fragments reacting only with surface-exposed epitopes of the protein F on whole bacteria ; one of the 20 clones tested showed a level of reactivity compatible with surface-exposed epitope that can lead to ulterior developments in targeting studies.

Kim K, Boothroyd JC (1995) Toxoplasma gondii : stable complementation of sag1 (p30) mutants using SAG1 transfection and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Exp Parasitol 80 :46-53


Toxoplasma gondii and the related Apicomplexan protozoan pathogens, Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, and Eimeria, are obligate intracellular parasites which cause severe disease in their hosts. The recent development of transient transfection of Toxoplasma permits the development of strategies utilizing "reverse genetics" to identify molecules critical to parasite survival within the host. We have utilized transfection of Toxoplasma tachyzoites to stably complement a sag1 (or p30) mutant that does not make detectable SAG1. Transfection of mutants with the wild-type SAG1 gene resulted in transient expression of SAG1 in approximately 15-20% of the transfected population. Stable transformants were enriched by repeated sorting of live parasites using a fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody specific for SAG1. Cloned recombinant parasites expressed SAG1 at wild-type levels and maintained expression for over 5 months after transfection (approximately 300 divisions). Cloned transformants (which proved to be siblings) carried both the mutated gene and one copy of the transfected gene which had inserted randomly into the Toxoplasma genome.

Lacy M, Jones J, Whittemore SR, Haviland DL, Wetsel RA, Barnum SR (1995) Expression of the receptors for the C5a anaphylatoxin, interleukin-8 and FMLP by human astrocytes and microglia. J Neuroimmunol 61 :71-78


The expression of chemotactic receptors in the central nervous system is largely unexplored. In this study, we examined human astrocytes and microglia as well as the conditionally immortalized human astrocyte cell line HSC2 for expression of the C5a-anaphylatoxin receptor (C5aR), the interleukin-8 receptor (IL-8R) and the f-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FMLPR). Using flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrated that astrocytes, microglia and HSC2 cells contain specific RNA and express surface protein for all three chemotactic receptors. These are the first studies to demonstrate definitively the expression of these chemotactic receptors astrocytes and microglia, thereby expanding the types of cells known to express chemotactic receptors. Moreover, these data suggest that these chemotactic receptors may play an important role in mediating the inflammatory response and perhaps other yet undescribed biological phenomena in the central nervous system.

Lam KM (1995) Apoptosis in chicken embryo fibroblasts caused by Newcastle disease virus. Vet Microbiol 47 :357-363


The GB strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was used to infect chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). At various times after infection, CEF were harvested and processed for DNA extraction, flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA at 12 h after infection, showed a laddering pattern, indicating fragmentation of cellular DNA. Flow cytometry analysis of the infected cells showed an increase in the population of smaller cells (apoptotic cells). Electron microscopic examination showed extensive cellular necrosis, but also showed some other cells with condensed chromatin and with extensive perinuclear fragmentation of chromatin ; apoptotic bodies could also be readily seen. These data suggest that NDV infection of CEF causes apoptosis, in addition to necrosis.

Lehman JM, Dickerson E, Friedrich T, Laffin J (1995) Increase in total protein following infection of CV-1 cells with SV40 virus as assayed by flow cytometry. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 31 :806-810


The changes in cell size and total protein were determined for G1-arrested, contact-inhibited CV-1 cells infected with Simian virus 40 (SV40). The assays used were the Biorad total protein assays (Bradford and DC protein assays) on a standard number of cells, total protein as assayed by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and SR101 by flow cytometry, orthoganol (90 degrees) light scatter by flow cytometry, and direct microscopic measurement with an ocular micrometer. Uninfected CV-1 cells and two cell lines with variations in DNA content (diploid vs. tetraploid) were used as controls for the studies presented. The results demonstrated a 40-60% increase in total protein at 32 to 42 h postinfection. These increases were similar to values obtained due to cellular changes resulting from viral replication and cell death.

Lopez-Amoros R, Comas J, Vives-Rego J (1995) Flow cytometric assessment of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium starvation-survival in seawater using rhodamine 123, propidium iodide, and oxonol. Appl Environ Microbiol 61 :2521-2526


The use of flow cytometry in microbiology allows rapid characterization of cells from a nonhomogeneous population. A method based on flow cytometry to assess the effects of lethal agents and the bacterial survival in starved cultures through the use of membrane potential-sensitive dyes and a nucleic acid marker is presented. The use of propidium iodide, rhodamine, and oxonol has facilitated the differentiation of cells of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium of various states of vitality following various treatments (heat, sonication, electroporation, and incubation with gramicidin) and during starvation in artificial seawater. The fluorescence intensity is directly correlated with viable cell counts for rhodamine 123 labelling, whereas oxonol and propidium iodide labelling is inversely correlated with viable counts. The distribution of rhodamine and oxonol uptake during starvation-survival clearly indicates that single-species starved bacteria are heterogeneous populations, and flow cytometry can be a fundamental tool for quantifying this heterogeneity.

Martinelli F, Pizzi R, Cabibbo E, Licenziati S, Dima F, Canaris AD, Crea G, Ravizzola G, Caruso A, Turano A (1995) Monoclonal antibodies against antigens exposed on the surface of vegetative forms and spores of Myxococcus virescens. New Microbiol 18 :399-407


Twelve monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against cell-surface antigens of Myxococcus virescens cells were developed and partially characterized. All of them recognized multiple, diffuse proteic bands in Western blot and four were also reactive to living bacteria, as assessed by flow cytometry. The four latter mAbs recognized antigens common to a number of vegetative forms and spores. The selective expression of proteins recognized by mAbs on the microorganisms and the possible applications of mAbs to the study of myxobacterial cell interaction are discussed.

Mason DJ, Power EG, Talsania H, Phillips I, Gant VA (1995) Antibacterial action of ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39 :2752-2758


The mechanisms by which quinolones rapidly kill are ill defined. We have investigated the action of ciprofloxacin on Escherichia coli KL16 with a combination of traditional and flow cytometric methods and have analyzed cells for changes in membrane potential, membrane integrity, oxidative metabolism, morphology, and viability. Log-phase cultures were exposed to various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 times the MIC) of ciprofloxacin and analyzed at regular intervals over 120 min. We also measured protein synthesis in the related strain PQ37 cultured under the same conditions over 300 min, using a colorimetric assay for beta-galactosidase release. Despite a 3-log order decrease in CFU after 60-min exposure to 10 and 100 times the MIC of ciprofloxacin, there was no equivalent decrease in bacterial numbers as determined by both light microscopy and flow cytometry. Furthermore, while these bacteria showed concentration-dependent morphological changes, most were capable not only of excluding the fluorescent nucleic acid-binding dye propidium iodide, but also of reducing the tetrazolium dye cyanoditodyl tetrazolium chloride. Over 90% of the bacteria maintained a membrane potential [as determined by exclusion of bis-[1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol] when exposed to ciprofloxacin for 120 min, except at 100 times the MIC, when this figure fell to < 10%. Finally, protein synthesis was either maintained or induced at all concentrations of ciprofloxacin up to 5 h postexposure. Taken together, these results demonstrate the continuing physical and metabolic survival of ciprofloxacin-exposed bacteria ; we suggest parallels with the concept of the viable nonculturable state.

Moeck GS, Ratcliffe MJ, Coulton JW (1995) Topological analysis of the Escherichia coli ferrichrome-iron receptor by using monoclonal antibodies. J Bacteriol 177 :6118-6125


Ferrichrome-iron transport in Escherichia coli is initiated by the outer membrane receptor FhuA. Thirty-five anti-FhuA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were isolated to examine the surface accessibility of FhuA sequences and their contribution to ligand binding. The determinants of 32 of the MAbs were mapped to eight distinct regions in the primary sequence of FhuA by immunoblotting against (i) five internal deletion FhuA proteins and (ii) four FhuA peptides generated by cyanogen bromide cleavage. Two groups of MAbs bound to FhuA in outer membrane vesicles but not to intact cells, indicating that their determinants, located between residues 1 and 20 and 21 and 59, are exposed to the periplasm. One of the 28 strongly immunoblot-reactive MAbs bound to FhuA on intact cells in flow cytometry, indicating that its determinant, located between amino acids 321 and 381, is cell surface exposed. This MAb and four others which in flow cytometry bound to cells expressing FhuA were tested for the ability to block ligand binding. While no MAb inhibited growth promotion by ferrichrome or cell killing by microcin 25, some prevented killing by colicin M and were partially able to inhibit the inactivation of T5 phage. These data provide evidence for spatially distinct ligand binding sites on FhuA. The lack of surface reactivity of most of the immunoblot-reactive MAbs suggests that the majority of FhuA sequences which lie external to the outer membrane may adopt a tightly ordered organization with little accessible linear sequence.

Montel AH, Bochan MR, Goebel WS, Brahmi Z (1995) Fas-mediated cytotoxicity remains intact in perforin and granzyme B antisense transfectants of a human NK-like cell line. Cell Immunol 165 :312-317


Cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) has traditionally been thought to involve the release of granule components, including perforin and granzymes, from the effector cell (EC) onto the target cell (TC) membrane. Recently, a granule-independent cytolytic mechanism involving the interaction of Fas antigen (CD95) with Fas ligand has been described. We have generated antisense perforin (YT-xP1) and granzyme B (YT-xGrB) transfectants of the human NK-like cell line YT-INDY. These transfectants have greatly reduced cytolytic ability when compared to the vector-transfected control cell line (YT-neo). In this study, however, we demonstrate that the antisense transfectants retain the ability to lyse Fas+ TC. Fas-mediated lysis is Ca(2+)-independent and is inhibited by a monoclonal anti-Fas blocking Ab, M3. By RT-PCR, we detect message for FasL in unstimulated YT-xP1 and YT-xGrB transfectants, as well as in unstimulated YT-neo. By flow cytometry, we show that YT-neo, YT-xGrB, and YT-xP1 constitutively express surface FasL. These data indicate that in a human NK-like cell line, similar to the murine system, the granule and Fas pathways of cytotoxicity function independently of one another. At least with the TC tested, our data also indicate that the granule and Fas pathways together account for nearly 100% of the cytolytic ability of YT-INDY.

Okita M, Mori T, Shin YS, Miyasaka M, Yamanouchi K, Mikami T, Kai C (1995) Immunohistochemical studies of lymphoid tissues of rabbits infected with rinderpest virus. J Comp Pathol 112 :41-51


The pathogenesis of infection with the L-strain of rinderpest virus (RPV) in rabbits was investigated. Of several lymphoid tissues examined, those associated with the gut showed the most marked virus growth. The virus titres were maximal 4 days after inoculation but had declined at day 6. The distribution of viral antigen was examined immunohistochemically with the recently established anti-rabbit CD5 monoclonal antibody (MoAb), which is a pan-T-cell marker, and the anti-RPV-nucleoprotein MoAb. The virus antigen was localized in the CD5+ area at the initial stage of infection but spread to all areas of the lymphoid tissues at the later stages. By flow cytometric analysis with both rabbit CD5 and CD4 MoAbs, a decrease of the CD4+ and CD5+ subpopulations was observed in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes.

Op De Beeck A, Anouja F, Mousset S, Rommelaere J, Caillet-Fauquet P (1995) The nonstructural proteins of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice interfere with the cell cycle, inducing accumulation in G2. Cell Growth Differ 6 :781-787


The nonstructural (NS) proteins of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (prototype strain) are involved in viral DNA replication and in the regulation of parvoviral and heterologous promoters. By constructing cell lines having integrated the NS coding sequence under the control of an inducible promoter, we were able to demonstrate that NS proteins are toxic, once expressed in the transformed cells. Cell killing appears after several days of NS expression, suggesting that NS toxicity involved cellular factors. In this paper, we show that NS proteins are cytotoxic and interfere with the cell cycle in proliferating cells only NS expression is innocuous in resting cells, whereas in growing cells, it induces the accumulation of G2 cells. This cytostatic effect is enhanced upon neoplastic transformation, which sensitized the cells to NS killing. Moreover, as clones resistant to NS toxicity undergo no alteration of their cycle, this cytostatic effect of NS proteins could be an early step on the way to cell killing. These observations strongly suggest that NS toxicity involves cellular factors associated with the regulation of the cell cycle.

Perkins PC, Grindem CB, Cullins LD (1995) Flow cytometric analysis of punctate and aggregate reticulocyte responses in phlebotomized cats. Am J Vet Res 56 :1564-1569


Five cats were made anemic by one-time phlebotomy, and their reticulocyte responses were monitored daily for 20 days, using manual enumeration and a standardized feline reticulocyte protocol developed and validated in our laboratory. The reticulocyte responses of 38 clinically normal client-owned cats also were analyzed manually and cytometrically to determine clinical reference ranges. Increases in the percentage of aggregate reticulocytes over the reference range were detected in 5 of 5 phlebotomized cats, using the cytometric protocol. Only 4 of the 5 cats had an increase by results of manual enumeration. Manual aggregate counts had considerable daily variation and often fluctuated in and out of reference range, whereas cytometric aggregate counts remained consistently increased for distinct periods. Increased numbers of aggregate cells could also be detected for longer periods when evaluated by flow cytometry. Increased numbers of punctate reticulocytes were detected in 4 of 5 cats, using the cytometric protocol. None of the cats had increased numbers of punctate cells when evaluated by use of the manual technique. Aggregate reticulocytes in the 38 clinically normal cats ranged from 0.1 to 0.5%, which corresponded to 8,487 to 42,120 cells/microliter. Punctate reticulocytes ranged from 2 to 17%, which corresponded to 225,400 to 1,268,584 cells/microliter. Flow cytometry, using a standardized analysis protocol, was a more reliable and sensitive technique for detection and evaluation of feline reticulocytosis than was manual enumeration. The sensitivity of the flow cytometer to small amounts of intracellular nucleoprotein makes this assay especially valuable for detection of punctate reticulocytosis and low degrees of aggregate reticulocytosis in cats.

Pfosser M, Amon A, Lelley T, Heberle-Bors E (1995) Evaluation of sensitivity of flow cytometry in detecting aneuploidy in wheat using disomic and ditelosomic wheat-rye addition lines. Cytometry 21 :387-393


Flow cytometric DNA analysis was used to study changes in nuclear DNA content induced by the addition of complete or telosomic rye chromosomes into the genome of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The DNA content of each addition line was determined by comparison with an internal reference value and was expressed as a difference with respect to the original wheat parental line. A 1.84% difference in the DNA content could be detected. Nuclei were flow sorted and the presence of rye chromatin in the nuclei with the higher DNA content was demonstrated by Southern hybridization. Flow cytometry was proven to be sensitive enough to detect the small DNA content deviations that are expected to occur in aneuploid plants of wheat.

Pilewski JM, Sott DJ, Wilson JM, Albelda SM (1995) ICAM-1 expression on bronchial epithelium after recombinant adenovirus infection. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 12 :142-148


Early experience with recombinant adenoviruses for gene transfer to airway epithelium suggests that these vectors are associated with the development of inflammation. The mechanisms for this are unclear, but previous work has shown that respiratory viruses can cause increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on airway epithelial cells. We therefore hypothesized that recombinant adenoviruses may induce ICAM-1 expression and thereby facilitate the development of airway inflammation. To address this, primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells were examined for ICAM-1 expression by flow cytometry after infection with a serotype 5, E1/E3-deleted recombinant adenovirus containing the Escherichia coli LacZ reporter gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (Ad.CMVlacZ). Compared with control cells, ICAM-1 expression was unchanged after infection with Ad.CMVlacZ, but increased after infection with wild-type adenovirus. Treatment of Ad.CMVlacZ-infected cells with interferon-gamma (IFN) resulted in increased ICAM-1 expression, but to a lower level than that seen in cells treated with IFN alone, indicating that recombinant adenovirus infection blunted IFN-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1. Adhesion of human leukocytes to human bronchial epithelial cells was not increased after Ad.CMVlacZ infection, thereby excluding an ICAM-1-independent increase in leukocyte-epithelial adhesion. The results for ICAM-1 expression were confirmed in vivo, as immunostaining of human bronchial xenografts infected with Ad.CMVlacZ revealed basilar epithelial staining with ICAM-1, but no increased expression on cells expressing beta-galactosidase. This study demonstrates that unlike other respiratory viruses, recombinant E1/E3-deleted adenovirus does not cause increased ICAM-1 expression on human bronchial epithelium in vitro or in vivo nor increased leukocyte adhesion in vitro.

Pillay I, Sharma SV (1995) In vivo and in vitro serine/threonine phosphorylations of epidermal growth factor receptor upon entry into the cell cycle. Cell Growth Differ 6 :39-49


Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is one of the main mechanisms of cell cycle regulation. This study examines the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation as cells emerge from quiescence and enter the S phase of the cell cycle. The epidermal growth factor receptor is phosphorylated primarily on serine and threonine, but not on tyrosine residues, in an S phase-dependent fashion, as determined by phosphoamino acid analysis and anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblotting. These phosphorylations occur both in vitro and in vivo and are ligand independent. Some of the sites that are phosphorylated in vitro also appear to be phosphorylated in vivo, as determined by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide analysis. At least one of the in vivo phosphorylation sites is phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase. Although the mechanism for this ligand-independent phosphorylation is not known, its correlation with emergence from quiescence and entry into the cell cycle suggests that the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor on serine and threonine residues may have heretofore unknown role(s) in cell cycle entry and progression.

Porter J, Edwards C, Pickup RW (1995) Rapid assessment of physiological status in Escherichia coli using fluorescent probes. J Appl Bacteriol 79 :399-408


Rapid and direct viability assessment of Escherichia coli in filtered, sterile lake water was possible using multiparameter flow cytometry. Fluorescent dyes were used as probes for different cellular functions (membrane potential, membrane integrity and intracellular enzyme activity), which were correlated with the ability of the cells to respond to nutrient addition while in a stressed state. Measurement of several criteria circumvented limitations imposed by other methods, and provided extensive evidence for the validity of the methods for monitoring cell viability during adoption of a viable-but-non-culturable state in starved E. coli. Macromolecular staining was concomitantly used to monitor changes in cellular protein, RNA and DNA as additional indicators of physiological status during starvation/stress.

Porter J, Pickup R, Edwards C (1995) Flow cytometric detection of specific genes in genetically modified bacteria using in situ polymerase chain reaction. FEMS Microbiol Lett 134 :51-56


Use of the polymerase chain reaction, coupled with flow cytometry, to detect a plasmid encoded xylE gene sequence in intact cells of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida was investigated. Optimal incorporation of fluorescently labelled dUTP into a full length PCR product required substitution at a level of 2:3 dUTP:dTTP. Formaldehyde fixed cells of both species were counted before and after thermal cycling. Sufficient numbers of cells remained intact for subsequent detection using microscopy and flow cytometry but light scatter properties were altered. Intact cell suspensions of both species containing plasmid pLV1013 were subjected to thermal cycling with fluorescent dUTP in the reaction mix. Subsequent analysis by flow cytometry allowed detection of a fluorescent PCR product associated with cells. Control samples (without the plasmid) showed only background fluorescence. This method demonstrates the potential for applying DNA amplification methods for sensitive detection of specific sequences localized inside intact bacterial cells.

Porter J, Pickup R, Edwards C (1995) Membrane hyperpolarisation by valinomycin and its limitations for bacterial viability assessment using rhodamine 123 and flow cytometry. FEMS Microbiol Lett 132 :259-262


The ionophore, valinomycin, was investigated as a possible means of bacterial viability assessment using the fluorescent membrane potential dye rhodamine 123. Membrane hyperpolarisation in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter aerogenes and Arthrobacter globiformis was examined during exponential growth and during stress by brief starvation in a high sodium, low potassium buffer using flow cytometric analysis of rhodamine 123 uptake. Dye uptake was variable both between species and amongst cells from the same culture. Exponential phase cells showed no increase in dye uptake due to valinomycin treatment. Stressed P. fluorescens cells responded to valinomycin treatment by increased dye uptake, while stressed E. coli and A. globiformis cells showed no response. Approximately 50% of stressed Eb. aerogenes cells responded to valinomycin. The results demonstrate the limitations of rhodamine dye for viability analysing the viability of diverse bacterial communities and underline the degree of cell heterogeneity in batch cultures.

Rimler RB, Register KB, Magyar T, Ackermann MR (1995) Influence of chondroitinase on indirect hemagglutination titers and phagocytosis of Pasteurella multocida serogroups A, D and F. Vet Microbiol 47 :287-294


Capsules of Pasteurella multocida serogroups A, D and F contain mucopolysaccharides which block antigenic determinants and prevent phagocytosis. In this study, capsules of serogroup A, D and F strains of P. multocida were depolymerized by enzyme treatment. Capsule depolymerization of serogroup D and F strains with chondroitinase increased indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test titers and enhanced phagocytosis by swine neutrophils. Capsule depolymerization of serogroup A strains with hyaluronidase increased IHA titers, but depolymerization with chondroitinase did not. When serogroup A strains were treated with a combination of chondroitinase and hyaluronidase, IHA test titers were lower than titers of the same strains treated with hyaluronidase alone. Combined enzyme treatment of serogroup D strains resulted in IHA test titers similar to those of chondroitinase treatment alone.

Rorke EA, Jacobberger JW (1995) Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1) enhances apoptosis in human papillomavirus type 16-immortalized human ectocervical epithelial cells. Exp Cell Res 216 :65-72


Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is a potent inhibitor of epithelial cell growth. In the present study TGF beta 1 modulation of human ectocervical epithelial cell growth and differentiation is evaluated using an HPV16-immortalized human ectocervical cell line, ECE16-1. These cells were found to contain a high-affinity receptor for TGF beta 1 (Kd = 75 pM). TGF beta (10-500 pg/ml) suppressed ECE16-1 growth and [3H]thymidine incorporation in a dose-dependent manner. Growth inhibition was reversible at TGF beta 1 concentrations of 100 pg/ml or less. At higher concentrations of TGF beta 1, treatment for longer than 2 days induced irreversible growth inhibition. In addition to its effects on cell growth, TGF beta 1 treatment increased apoptosis in ECE16-1 cells as measured by an increase in cornified envelope formation, flow cytometry, and DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis was enhanced at doses > or = 100 pg/ml. There was a highly significant increase in the activity of tissue transglutaminase, an enzyme believed to play an important role in apoptosis. This increase in transglutaminase activity was paralleled by a TGF beta 1-stimulated increase in fibronectin levels. Transglutaminase and fibronectin have been shown to associate during tissue remodeling. These data suggest that TGF beta 1 may act as an important paracrine/autocrine factor to stimulate normal cervical remodeling and to limit HPV16-immortalized cervical cell progression by stimulating apoptosis. The induction of fibronectin and tissue transglutaminase suggests that the TGF beta 1 pathway of cell death differs from that of normal ectocervical epithelial cell differentiation, which is mediated by epidermal transglutaminase.

Ryan C, Nguyen BT, Sullivan SJ (1995) Rapid assay for mycobacterial growth and antibiotic susceptibility using gel microdrop encapsulation. J Clin Microbiol 33 :1720-1726


Effective control of tuberculosis transmission in vulnerable population groups is dependent on rapid identification of the infectious agent and its drug susceptibility. However, the slow growth rate of mycobacteria has undermined the ability to quickly identify antimicrobial resistance. These studies describe a mycobacterial growth assay based on microencapsulation technology used in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis. Mycobacteria were encapsulated in agarose gel microdrops approximately 25 microns in diameter, and colony growth was monitored by using flow cytometry to evaluate the intensity of auramine staining after culture for various times at 37 degrees C. By this method, colony growth of Mycobacterium bovis and M. smegmatis could be quantified within 1 to 3 days after encapsulation. Inhibition of growth by rifampin and isoniazid was also evaluated in this time period, and the presence of an isoniazid-resistant subpopulation representing 3% of the total microorganisms could be detected. This use of encapsulation and flow cytometry has the potential to facilitate rapid and automated evaluation of inhibition of growth by antimicrobial agents and shorten the time frame for analysis of clinical specimens.

Rywkin S, Ben-Hur E, Reid ME, Oyen R, Ralph H, Horowitz B (1995) Selective protection against IgG binding to red cells treated with phthalocyanines and red light for virus inactivation. Transfusion 35 :414-420


BACKGROUND : Irradiation with red light of red cells (RBCs) containing the photodynamically active phthalocyanine (Pc) dyes is being studied for inactivation of lipid-enveloped viruses. One of the outstanding problems with this treatment is the binding of IgG to RBCs. The effects of oxygen and type I or type II quenchers on this IgG uptake were evaluated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS : The Pc compounds used were aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AIPcS4), HOSiPcOSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2 (Pc 4) ; HOSiPcOSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N+(CH3)3I- (Pc 5) ; and SiPcOSi[(CH3)2(CH2)3N+(CH3)3](2)2I- (Pc 6). RBCs were analyzed by flow cytometry for the presence of IgG. RESULTS : Irradiation with red light for 30 minutes of RBCs containing either 2 microM Pc 4, 2 microM Pc 5, 2 microM Pc 6, or 6.5 microM AIPcS4 resulted in an uptake of IgG. These conditions completely inactivated the lipid-enveloped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) (> 5 log10 kill). IgG uptake was reduced when oxygen was depleted. The addition of reduced glutathione (GSH) or mercaptoethanol prevented the binding of IgG with RBCs treated with AIPcS4, Pc 4, Pc 5, and Pc 6. Specific binding of IgG2 but not of C3d was observed upon irradiation of RBCs with Pc 5 and Pc 6 in the absence of GSH. No gross changes were observed in RBC antigen strength after irradiation with the dyes in the presence of GSH. Inactivation of VSV by Pc plus light was not affected by GSH. CONCLUSION : Sulfhydryl compounds are useful in preventing IgG binding to RBCs following Pc photosensitization. Since virus inactivation proceeds at the same rate in the presence and the absence of sulfhydryl compounds, their addition to treated RBCs should allow crossmatching for transfusion after treatment. The binding of IgG depends to a large extent on the generation of reactive oxygen species.

Saleh H, Masood S (1995) Value of ancillary studies in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 13 :310-315


With growing interest in the application of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in primary diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions, there has been a significant increase in the use of ancillary studies in the aspirated material. To assess the value of such studies, we reviewed 254 morphologically difficult aspiration biopsy cases obtained from different sites that underwent ancillary studies which included microbiology (MC), special stains (SS), immunocytochemistry (ICC), electron microscopy (EM) and flow cytometry (FC). Correlation with available histologic material and/or pertinent clinical information was used as a "gold" standard. In some cases, more than one ancillary study was performed on a single aspirate. According to the impact of the ancillary studies on the final diagnosis, these studies were divided into three categories : confirmatory/diagnostic (22%), helpful (41%), and non-helpful (37%). Overall, more studies had positive contributory effect to the diagnosis (63%) than those with non-helpful results (37%). Among these adjunct testings, ICC were the most commonly used tests (135/296, 46%), while the EM studies had more positive impact in establishing the diagnosis. These findings emphasize the usefulness of ancillary testings in FNAB and justify the more selective use of these studies in the aspirated material.

Sapatino BV, Petrescu AD, Rosenbaum BA, Smith R, 3rd, Piedrahita JA, Welsh CJ (1995) Characteristics of cloned cerebrovascular endothelial cells following infection with Theiler’s virus. II. Persistent infection. J Neuroimmunol 62 :127-135


Cloned cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CVE) persistently infected with Theiler’s virus (PI-CVE) have been established and characterized. The CVE were derived from strains of mice that are susceptible (SJL/J and CBA) and resistant (BALB/c) to Theiler’s virus-induced demyelination (TVID). The cells were persistently infected with either the BeAn or GDVII strains of Theiler’s virus in vitro and studied at various passage levels for infectious virus, viral antigen and the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II antigens. The virus replicated to lower titers than in acutely infected CVE and appeared to be more cell-associated. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that 18-39% of the PI-CVE contained viral antigen. Persistently infected CVE derived from SJL/J and CBA mice expressed high levels of MHC Class I, whereas BALB/c PI-CVE did not. MHC Class II was upregulated by IFN-gamma in SJL/J PI-CVE albeit at a slightly lower level than in uninfected CVE. In addition, the PI-CVE demonstrated increased levels of mRNA for IL-1 beta when compared to uninfected CVE.

Sawicki SG, Lu JH, Holmes KV (1995) Persistent infection of cultured cells with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) results from the epigenetic expression of the MHV receptor. J Virol 69 :5535-5543


The A59 strain of murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) can cause persistent infection of 17C1-1 cells and other murine cell lines. Persistently infected cultures released large amounts of virus (10(7) to 10(8) PFU/ml) and were resistant to superinfection with MHV but not to infection with unrelated Semliki Forest and vesicular stomatitis viruses. The culture medium from persistently infected cultures did not contain a soluble inhibitor such as interferon that protected uninfected cells from infection by MHV or vesicular stomatitis virus. The persistent infection was cured if fewer than 100 cells were transferred during subculturing, and such cured cultures were susceptible to reinfection and the reestablishment of persistent infection. Cultures of 17C1-1 cells that had been newly cloned from single cells consisted of a mixture of MHV-resistant and -susceptible cells. 17C1-1/#97 cells, which were cured by subcloning after 97 passages of a persistently infected culture over a 1-year period, contained 5 to 10% of their population as susceptible cells, while 17C1-1/#402 cells, which were cured by subcloning after 402 passages over a 3-year period, had less than 1% susceptible cells. Susceptibility to infection correlated with the expression of MHV receptor glycoprotein (MHVR [Bgp1a]). Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis with antibody to MHVR showed that 17C1-1/#97 cells contained a small fraction of MHVR-expressing cells. These MHVR-expressing cells were selectively eliminated within 24 h after challenge with MHV-A59, and pretreatment of 17C1-1/#97 cells with monoclonal antibody CC1, which binds to the N-terminal domain of MHVR, blocked infection. We conclude that the subpopulation of MHVR-expressing cells were infected and killed in acutely or persistently infected cultures, while the subpopulation of MHVR-nonexpressing cells survived and proliferated. The subpopulation of MHVR-negative cells produced a small proportion of progeny cells that expressed MHVR and became infected, thereby maintaining the persistent infection as a steady-state carrier culture. Thus, in 17C1-1 cell cultures, the unstable or epigenetic expression of MHVR permitted the establishment of a persistent, chronic infection.

Schnitzler N, Haase G, Bussing A, Kaufhold A, Beyhs P, Podbielski A (1995) Measuring resistance to phagocytosis of group A and G streptococci : comparison of direct bactericidal assay and flow cytometry. Med Microbiol Immunol 184 :17-22


M protein is thought to contribute to the ability of non-opsonized group A and group G streptococci (GAS and GGS, respectively) to resist phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In previous studies, correlation between M protein expression and phagocytosis was determined by incubating these pathogens in human blood and comparing colony-forming bacterial counts prior to and after exposure to blood (direct bactericidal assay ; DBA). Here, we report the application of flow cytometry to measure GAS and GGS resistance to phagocytosis. The results of the assays were in complete agreement with those from DBAs. Nevertheless, flow cytometry was regarded as superior to DBA because of its speed and potential uses for quantitative studies. In addition, the use of anti-CD11b monoclonal antibody for granulocyte staining guaranteed a non-compromized granulocyte function. The optimized protocol for flow cytometry presented here could be utilized to directly measure the involvement of individual protein types in bacterial resistance to phagocytosis.

Simoneaux DK, Fletcher FA, Jurecic R, Shilling HG, Van NT, Patel P, Belmont JW (1995) The receptor tyrosine kinase-related gene (ryk) demonstrates lineage and stage-specific expression in hematopoietic cells. J Immunol 154 :1157-1166


We attempted to isolate novel receptor tyrosine kinase, which may play a role in hematopoietic development by screening for expressed sequences with conserved tyrosine kinase catalytic domains. Among the known tyrosine kinases identified in this screen, we found a gene with characteristics of a receptor tyrosine kinase but unusual motifs in the catalytic domain. This gene is identical to ryk described independently by other investigators. Chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization localization of human ryk was clarified by using monochromosomal hybrids and placing it as a single locus in 3q22. Although Northern analysis reveals widespread expression in adult mouse tissues, we have found that ryk expression is not ubiquitous. Expression increased in bone marrow cells from mice treated with 5-fluorouracil. Northern analysis on cell lines indicates expression in CD3-, CD4-, CD8- T cells (at a low level), pre-T cells, thymic epithelial cells, and mature myeloid cells, but not myeloid precursors or B cell precursors. Expression analysis with the use of RT-PCR on mouse bone marrow cells separated on the basis of cell surface markers (B220, CD4, CD8, Gr-1, Mac-1) reveals that this receptor is expressed in differentiated cells (Lin+) but is not expressed in the precursor cells (Lin-). Flow cytometric analysis with a monospecific anti-Ryk Ab demonstrates that Ryk+ cells constitute 36.7% and Lin+/Ryk+ cells constitute 33.7% of low density bone marrow cells whereas Ryk+ cells represent only 0.3% of the Lin- population. We conclude that ryk expression is regulated during hematopoietic development by lineage commitment and stage of maturation.

Soos JM, Johnson HM (1995) Type I interferon inhibition of superantigen stimulation : implications for treatment of superantigen-associated disease. J Interferon Cytokine Res 15 :39-45


The interferons (IFNs) are a family of secretory glycoproteins possessing potent antiviral, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. It has been shown that the IFNs and superantigens have an important effect on the course of certain autoimmune disorders, and thus we have examined the effect of the type I and type II IFNs on superantigen-induced stimulation. The type I IFNs, alpha, beta, and tau, inhibited induction of T cell proliferation by several staphylococcal enterotoxin superantigens ; the type II IFN, gamma, was without effect. The type I IFNs inhibited T cell proliferation to the same extent, approximately 50% at 10(3) units of IFN/ml, and in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with inhibition of proliferation, the type I IFNs also inhibited IL-2 production as well as levels of IL-2 receptor expression. Inhibition was not increased by using the IFNs in combination, suggesting that they inhibited proliferation by the same mechanism. IFNs alpha and beta, but not IFN-tau, were toxic to cells at high concentrations (> or = 10(4) units/ml). Thus, the mechanism by which type I IFNs inhibit cell proliferation differs from that associated with their toxic effects. A partial reduction of V beta-specific superantigen-induced T cell expansion by type I IFNs was also demonstrated using flow cytometry. We recently showed that superantigens play an important role in the reactivation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. The potent antiproliferative activities of the type I IFNs strongly suggest the further study of their use as therapies for superantigen-associated diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune disorders, as well as toxic shock syndrome.

Taguchi H, Osaki T, Yamaguchi H, Kamiya S (1995) Flow cytometric analysis using lipophilic dye PKH-2 for adhesion of Vibrio cholerae to Intestine 407 cells. Microbiol Immunol 39 :891-894


A comparative study of indirect and direct flow cytometric analysis for adherence of Vibrio cholerae to Intestine 407 cells was performed. The direct flow cytometric analysis employed the lipophilic dye PKH-2. It was concluded that direct flow cytometry using the lipophilic dye PKH-2 is useful and convenient for analyzing bacterium-host cell interactions, since it does not require any specific antibody as the first antibody.

Tsao YP, Kuo SW, Li SF, Liu JC, Lin SZ, Chen KY, Chen SL (1995) Differential regulation of cyclin A, cyclin B and p21 concentrations in a growth-restricted human fibroblast cell line. Biochem J 312 ( Pt 3) :693-698


When the culture temperature was shifted from 35 degrees C to 39 degrees C, human fibroblasts immortalized by the temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 T antigen became larger and acquired the morphological characteristics of senescent fibroblasts. After culture at 39 degrees C for 48 h, most cells had ceased to proliferate. A rapid depletion of cells with S-phase DNA content was observed after the temperature shift. To elucidate the mechanism governing this rapid arrest of proliferation, we studied the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. Cyclin A, cyclin B and p34cdc2 concentrations were not changed during growth restriction, whereas p21 was rapidly induced in these growth-restricted cells. Transient expression of exogenous p21 in cells cultured at 35 degrees C led to growth restriction and morphological changes characteristic of senescence. Furthermore, we studied the reversibility of growth restriction induced by the temperature increase. The results showed that senescent morphology and growth arrest were not reversible. In these cells the p21 concentration remained high and p34cdc2 remained undetectable. This indicates that p21 accumulation might be responsible for the maintenance of senescence. Our findings provide information on the use of growth restriction of immortalized fibroblasts induced by a temperature shift as a model system to study senescence.

Ueckert J, Breeuwer P, Abee T, Stephens P, von Caron GN, ter Steeg PF (1995) Flow cytometry applications in physiological study and detection of foodborne microorganisms. Int J Food Microbiol 28 :317-326


Vasconcelos AC, Lam KM (1995) Apoptosis in chicken embryos induced by the infectious bursal disease virus. J Comp Pathol 112 :327-338


Fifteen-day-old fertile eggs (specific pathogen-free) were inoculated with the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by the allantoic route and were opened and examined 2, 4 or 6 days later. The bursas of Fabricius (BFs) were collected and processed for DNA extraction, flow cytometry, and light and electron microscopy. Cellular DNA was subjected to electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide. Intense internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was detected in IBDV-infected bursas. Cytograms from cell suspensions derived from infected BFs displayed an increased population of cells with either high density and small size (apoptotic cells) or small size and high uptake of ethidium bromide (necrotic cells). Light and electron microscopical examination of the IBDV-infected BFs revealed death of lymphoid cells without surrounding inflammatory reaction, but with condensation of nuclear chromatin, crescent formation, and nuclear and cellular fragmentation. These data indicated that infection of chicken embryos with IBDV induced apoptosis in bursal lymphoid cells.

Vignes S, Fantin B, Elbim C, Walker F, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA, Carbon C (1995) Critical influence of timing of administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on antibacterial effect in experimental endocarditis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39 :2702-2707


The effect of human recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hrG-CSF) in rabbits with aortic endocarditis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. hrG-CSF significantly increased the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in blood and in cardiac vegetations and the expression of the adhesin molecule CD11b on the surface of polymorphonuclear neutrophils compared with those of animals that had not received hrG-CSF. When treatment was started 72 h after bacterial challenge, hrG-CSF alone had no antibacterial effect and did not enhance the efficacy of ciprofloxacin when used in combination, even with the higher dosing regimen used (50 micrograms/kg of body weight subcutaneously every 12 h for 4 days), in terms of number of positive blood cultures, bacterial counts in vegetations, and survival. In contrast, when treatment was started 30 min prior to bacterial challenge, hrG-CSF (50 micrograms/kg injected every 12 h) decreased bacterial titers in vegetations 72 h later (6.5 +/- 0.9 versus 7.9 +/- 0.9 log10 CFU/g of vegetation for hrG-CSF and controls, respectively ; P = prophylactic administration of hrG-CSF did not increase the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin. We concluded that the antibacterial effect of hrG-CSF in experimental endocarditis was related to the timing of its administration since hrG-CSF demonstrated a significant but transient antimicrobial effect only when treatment was initiated before bacterial challenge.

Wallner G, Erhart R, Amann R (1995) Flow cytometric analysis of activated sludge with rRNA-targeted probes. Appl Environ Microbiol 61 :1859-1866


Samples from a wastewater treatment plant were hybridized with fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide probes specific for members of the domains Bacteria and Eucarya ; the alpha, beta, and gamma subclasses of the class Proteobacteria ; or the genus Acinetobacter. Subsequently, they were counterstained with the DNA-specific dye Hoechst 33342 and analyzed by flow cytometry. By quantifying forward angle light scatter and Hoechst- and probe-conferred fluorescence as measures for cell size, DNA content, and rRNA content, respectively, not only relative abundances but also assessments of general metabolic activity for each of these groups were obtained. Hybridizations with a positive control probe binding to all bacteria showed that in the activated-sludge samples examined, 70 to 80% of the Hoechst-stained cells could unambiguously be identified by this method. The majority of the detected cells (approximately 40%) were beta-subclass Proteobacteria. Flow cytometric and microscopic counts were in general agreement. Discrepancies were found in particular for those populations that occurred predominantly in flocs (alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria) or chains (Acinetobacter spp.). Although the dispersal of aggregates needs to be improved, flow cytometry combined with rRNA-based in situ probing appears to be a powerful tool for the rapid and highly automated analysis of the microbial communities in activated sludge.

Weidanz JA, Campbell P, DeLucas LJ, Jin J, Moore D, Roden L, Yu H, Heilmann E, Vezza AC (1995) Glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase in normal human erythrocytes. Br J Haematol 91 :72-79


In the course of an investigation of hexosamine catabolism in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, it became apparent that a basic understanding of the relevant enzymatic reactions in the host erythrocyte is lacking. To acquire the necessary basic knowledge, we have determined the activities of several enzymes involved in hexosamine metabolism in normal human red blood cells. In the present communication we report the results of studies of glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase (GlcN6-P) using a newly developed sensitive radiometric assay. The mean specific activity in extracts of fresh erythrocytes assayed within 4h of collection was 14.7 nmol/h/mg protein, whereas preparations from older erythrocytes that had been stored at 4 degrees C for up to 4 weeks had a mean specific activity of 6.2 nmol/h/mg. Characterization of the deaminase by chromatofocusing gave a pI of 8.55. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 9.0 and had a Km of 41 microM. The metal chelators EDTA and EGTA were non-inhibitory ; however, inhibition was observed in the presence of metal ions, especially Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+. In addition, the deaminase was also inhibited by several sugar phosphates including the reaction product, fructose 6-phosphate.

Zhu J (1995) Cytomegalovirus infection induces expression of 60 KD/Ro antigen on human keratinocytes. Lupus 4 :396-406


To investigate the effect of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on the expression of Ro autoantigen in human keratinocytes, the binding of anti-Ro peptide antibodies (anti-60 KD/Ro, anti-52 KD/Ro and anti-calreticulin) to cultured human keratinocytes was detected by fixed cell enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), immunofluorescence, flow cytometry (FACS) analysis and immunoblotting. There was a significant increase in the binding of anti-60 KD/Ro antibody but not anti-52 KD/Ro or anti-calreticulin antibody to the surface of cultured keratinocytes at 24 h after CMV infection compared with uninfected cells, by ELISA and immunofluorescence. Surface binding of anti-60 KD/Ro was found in 71.2% (+/- 5.5%) of CMV-infected cells compared with 26.2% (+/- 4.1%) of untreated cells (P < 0.05) by FACS analysis. Similar observations were made with a human serum which contained anti-60 KD/Ro antibodies. Immunoblotting was used to analyse total cellular 60 KD/Ro antigen expression in keratinocytes infected with CMV or without infection. No increase in the intensity of the 60 KD band was found in extracts of the CMV-infected cells, suggesting that the 60 KD/Ro antigen is redistributed from the cytoplasm to the cell surface after viral infection. The effects of CMV infection on cell cultures were compared with those of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The 60 KD/Ro, 52 KD/Ro and calreticulin were all induced on the UVB-irradiated cell surface but not significant synergistic effect of UVB and CMV was found. This study provides evidence that CMV infection induced 60 KD/Ro antigen expression on the surface of human keratinocytes, suggesting that CMV may play a role in development of skin lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Zhu W, Igarashi T, Friedman H, Klein TW (1995) delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) causes the variable expression of IL2 receptor subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 274 :1001-1007


Previously, we reported that the cannabinoid delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) suppressed interleukin 2 (IL2)-induced proliferation of a cloned, natural killer-like cell line (NKB61A2) and decreased the number of high- and intermediate-affinity IL2 binding sites. However, the surface expression of interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL2R alpha) chain, as measured by flow cytometry, was increased rather than decreased by THC treatment. This suggested that the drug-induced deficiency in IL2 binding and cell activation involved a defect in the cell-surface expression of IL2R subunits other than the alpha chain. Because the IL2 receptor complex is composed of alpha, beta and gamma chains, we examined the effect of THC treatment on the expression of these chains. In a result consistent with our previous findings, we observed that treatment of NKB61A2 cells with THC increased the cellular immunoprecipitable IL2R alpha protein (p55) and mRNA. Furthermore, the cellular production of IL2R beta chain protein (p75) and mRNA, determined by immunoprecipitation and Northern blotting, respectively, was also increased. The mRNA stability assay showed that THC increased the stability of IL2 beta mRNA, and nuclear run-on experiments suggested that the increase in subunit production was not due to a drug effect on gene transcription. The IL2R gamma chain was also affected by THC treatment in that Northern blotting studies showed a drug-induced decrease in the cellular level of gamma chain mRNA. In addition, THC treatment decreased the 125I-labeled IL2 internalization under high-affinity binding conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)