mardi 21 avril 2009
par   G. Grégori

(1989) Cytometry in aquatic sciences. Dedicated to Reuben Lasker (1930-1988). Cytometry 10 :497-669


Armbrust EV, Bowen JD, Olson RJ, Chisholm SW (1989) Effect of Light on the Cell Cycle of a Marine Synechococcus Strain. Appl Environ Microbiol 55 :425-432


Light-dependent regulation of cell cycle progression in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus strain WH-8101 was demonstrated through the use of flow cytometry. Our results show that, similar to eucaryotic cells, marine Synechococcus spp. display two gaps in DNA synthesis, at the beginning and at the end of the cell cycle. Progression through each of these gaps requires light, and their durations lengthen under light limitation.

Button DK, Robertson BR (1989) Kinetics of bacterial processes in natural aquatic systems based on biomass as determined by high-resolution flow cytometry. Cytometry 10 :558-563


The two primary kinetic constants for describing the concentration dependency of nutrient uptake by microorganisms are shown to be maximal rate of substrate uptake and, rather than the Michaelis constant for transport, specific affinity. Of the two, the specific affinity is more important for describing natural aquatic microbial processes because it can be used independently at small substrate concentrations. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate specific affinities in natural populations of aquatic bacteria because it gives a convenient measure of biomass, which is an essential measurement in the specific-affinity approach to microbial kinetics. Total biomass, biomass in various filter fractions, and the specific affinity of the bacteria in each fraction were determined in samples from a near-arctic lake. The partial growth rate of the pelagic bacteria from the 25 micrograms/liter of dissolved amino acids present (growth rate from the amino acid fraction alone) was determined to be 0.78 per day. By measuring activity in screened and whole-system populations, the biomass of the bacteria associated with particles was computed to be 427 micrograms/liter.

Button DK, Robertson BR (1989) Kinetics of Bacterial Processes in Natural Aquatic Systems Based on Biomass as Determined by High-Resolution Flow-Cytometry. Cytometry 10 :558-563

<Go to ISI> ://A1989AR73400009

Campbell JW, Yentsch CM, Cucci TL (1989) Variance within homogeneous phytoplankton populations, III : Analysis of natural populations. Cytometry 10 :605-611


A theoretical framework for interpreting flow cytometric histograms from homogeneous phytoplankton populations was developed in part I of this series of articles and applied to chlorophyll fluorescence histograms from clonal cultures in part II. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of this framework to the analysis of cell volume distributions found in a natural assemblage of phytoplankton from the Gulf of California. Flow cytometric analyses of a surface water sample incubated for a period of 61 h revealed the sequential growth and decline of three distinct subpopulations. Cell volume distributions for each subpopulation measured at different times were analyzed, and the theoretical density function described in parts I and II was fitted to these distributions. The range of cell volumes within each subpopulation was similar to that predicted for asynchronous populations.

Cucci TL, Shumway SE, Brown WS, Newell CR (1989) Using phytoplankton and flow cytometry to analyze grazing by marine organisms. Cytometry 10 :659-669


Phytoplankton can, through their autofluorescent characteristics, be thought of as tracer particles in much the same way as fluorescent microspheres when used in particle uptake experiments. Flow cytometric techniques can be used to differentiate phytoplankton from other suspended particles by the two primary autofluorescing photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll and phycoerythrin. Based on these characteristics, phytoplankton assemblages have been used to assess grazing rates, particle selectivity, and endocytotic abilities in various marine species, from single-celled organisms to higher invertebrates.

Cucci TL, Shumway SE, Brown WS, Newell CR (1989) Using Phytoplankton and Flow-Cytometry to Analyze Grazing by Marine Organisms. Cytometry 10 :659-669

<Go to ISI> ://A1989AR73400021

Dorsey J, Yentsch CM, Mayo S, McKenna C (1989) Rapid analytical technique for the assessment of cell metabolic activity in marine microalgae. Cytometry 10 :622-628


A standard method for the assessment of cell viability has been developed for marine phytoplankton using an inexpensive stain, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), at .75 microM for 10 min. A flow cytometer was used as the fluorescence detector, providing an assessment of viability for each individual particle. Cell size and chlorophyll fluorescence per cell were assessed simultaneously, permitting an assignment of viability to specific subpopulations, thus increasing the power of the technique. A reasonable correspondence between FDA mean fluorescence intensity per cell and an independent metabolic indicator, photosynthetic capacity measured by 14C, was found. Both FDA mean fluorescence intensity and photosynthetic capacity vary as a function of cell volume. Recovery after extended periods of darkness indicate that cells that are FDA negative may not be dead, but merely quiescent or inactive.

Gerath MW, Chisholm SW (1989) Change in Photosynthetic Capacity over the Cell Cycle in Light/Dark-Synchronized Amphidinium carteri Is Due Solely to the Photocycle. Plant Physiol 91 :999-1005


Cell cycle dependent photosynthesis in the marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carteri was studied under constant illumination and light/dark (L/D) photocycles to distinguish intrinsic cell cycle control from environmental influences. Cells were grown in constant light and on a 14:10 L:D cycle at light intensities that would yield a population growth rate of 1 doubling per day. In the former case division was asynchronous, and cells were separated according to cell cycle stage using centrifugal elutriation. Cells grown on the L:D cycle were synchronized, with division restricted to the dark period. Cell cycle stage distributions were quantified by flow cytometry. Various cell age groups from the two populations were compared as to their photosynthetic response (photosynthetic rate versus irradiance) to determine whether or not the response was modulated primarily by cell cycle constraints or the periodic L/D cycle. Cell cycle variation in photosynthetic capacity was found to be determined solely by the L/D cycle ; it was not present in cells grown in constant light.

Homma K, Hastings JW (1989) The s phase is discrete and is controlled by the circadian clock in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra. Exp Cell Res 182 :635-644


Cloned cultures of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra grown in a 12-h light-12-h dark cycle (LD 12:12) were synchronized to the beginning of G1 by a two sequential filtration technique. After the second filtration, with the cultures growing in LD 12:12, not many cells had divided after 1 day, but approximately half underwent cell division after 2 days. Flow cytometric measurements of the cells revealed that there is one unique S phase starting about 12 h prior to cell division and lasting for less than 4 h. A majority of cells in cultures synchronized in the same way but maintained in continuous light (LL) after filtration also divided synchronously after 2 days. Just as for the cultures in LD 12:12, those in LL have a similar discrete DNA synthesis phase prior to division. It is concluded that the circadian control of cell division acts before the S phase, giving rise to a discontinuous DNA synthesis phased by the circadian clock.

Knoechel R, Quinn EM (1989) Carbon dynamics of logarithmetic and stationary phase phytoplankton as determined by track autoradiography. Cytometry 10 :612-621


Track autoradiographic analysis of photosynthetic radiocarbon incorporation at the cellular level indicated that the carbon uptake rate and carbon pool size of exponentially growing (log phase) Scenedesmus cells was threefold that of stationary phase cells, while carbon turnover rates were similar. Carbon fixation was uncoupled from growth and cell division in the stationary phase cells, which were larger and contained less chlorophyll per unit volume than log phase cells. Changes in the temporal pattern of isotope incorporation were evident at the cell level prior to the cessation of division and transition to stationary phase, while bulk carbon fixation responded only the second day after cell division ceased. The carbon uptake patterns of a marine nanoplankter from a nutrient-enriched natural sample resembled that of log phase cells while the control population pattern resembled that of stationary cells. The physical, biochemical, and metabolic differences between log and stationary phase cells are potentially measurable by flow cytometry procedures currently in use and under development. The use of flow cytometry to sort cell types for analysis by track autoradiography and subsequent correlation of metabolic characteristics with flow cytometry signatures is a feasible means of investigating the heterogeneity of phytoplankton metabolic state in the marine environment.

Li WK (1989) Shipboard analytical flow cytometry of oceanic ultraphytoplankton. Cytometry 10 :564-579


Shipboard analysis of marine ultraphytoplankton by flow cytometry is a powerful method to classify these cells according to in vivo fluorescence characteristics and size. At present, this ataxonomic-allometric approach allows recognition of phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacteria, cryptomonads, very small red-fluorescing cells (presumably prochlorophytes), and eukaryotic algae of various sizes in many open ocean samples. The speed at which flow cytometric analysis can be performed on freshly collected samples permits a high degree of sampling resolution in both space and time. A flow cytometric view is presented of the vertical distribution of ultraphytoplankton at various sites in the north Atlantic and of experiments wherein phytoplankton were incubated in an artificial light gradient and under simulated in situ conditions.

Olson RJ, Zettler ER, Anderson OK (1989) Discrimination of eukaryotic phytoplankton cell types from light scatter and autofluorescence properties measured by flow cytometry. Cytometry 10 :636-643


Flow cytometric methods for recognizing several groups of eukaryotic marine phytoplankton were tested using 26 laboratory cultures. Each culture was divided into three aliquots, and these samples were analyzed for 1) Coulter volume ; 2) light scatter (magnitude and polarization properties of forward scattered light and magnitude of right-angle scattered light) and autofluorescence emission (phycoerythrin and chlorophyll) ; and 3) autofluorescence excitation (by 488 nm and 515 nm light). Three kinds of cells could be easily distinguished from others in the culture collection : 1) The two cryptophytes and the rhodophyte had high phycoerythrin/chlorophyll ratios ; 2) the two coccolithophores depolarized forward scattered light ; and 3) the two pennate diatoms scattered only a relatively small amount of light in the forward direction compared with that at right angles. Mean chlorophyll fluorescence excited by blue light relative to that excited by green light was highest in the four chlorophytes, but there was overlap between some of these and some other kinds of cells. Unresolved cell types included centric diatoms, dinoflagellates, and naked coccolithophores. Forward light scatter and Coulter volume were closely related (except for the pennate diatoms) over a range of about 0.01 to 30 pL (equivalent spherical diameter about 3 to 40 microns), according to a logarithmic function.

Phinney DA, Cucci TL (1989) Flow cytometry and phytoplankton. Cytometry 10 :511-521


Flow cytometry and sorting are now an important technology in aquatic research. Simultaneous measurements of individual particle cell size, fluorescence, and light scatter properties are directly applicable to current topics in aquatic research. Flow sorting may be employed to obtain subsets of cells for analysis by conventional methods. The manner in which rapid, precise measurements of single cells are made is complex, and the application of this technology to aquatic samples is subject to many analytical constraints. Flow cytometric measurements of algal cell size and pigment autofluorescence are relative and are therefore dependent on the optical configuration and variability of the instrument. Specific types of reference materials are used to establish the validity of analyses : 1) instrument standards, 2) fluorescence controls, and 3) internal stain standards. The selection and application of standards and controls are discussed in the context of allometric (cell size versus pigment fluorescence) and ataxonomic (pigment color groups) methods. The widespread acceptance of particular reference materials among research groups will result in comparable data sets describing aquatic particle distributions.

Robertson BR, Button DK (1989) Characterizing aquatic bacteria according to population, cell size, and apparent DNA content by flow cytometry. Cytometry 10 :70-76


Flow cytometry offers a rapid method for characterizing aquatic populations according to the properties of individual cells. This technology has been extended to aquatic bacteria by using high-intensity UV excitation, condensing the laser beam onto a small area, using blemish-free flow cells, optimizing organism staining protocol, segregating the optical signal produced with high-transmittance optical filters, collecting the signal with sensitive photomultipliers, and expanding the range of data displayed from individual samples with calibrated circuitry. Bacteria could be counted according to event frequency, and populations agreed with direct counts by epifluorescence microscopy. Forward scatter intensity was a linear function of volume for bacterial cells between 1.3 and 0.25 micron 3 as calibrated by Coulter impedance. Plastic spheres down to 0.014 micron 3, 0.3 micron in diameter, were resolved. Aquatic bacteria 0.05 micron 3 in volume were clearly resolved according to DNA content by staining with DAPI. The observed signal was DNA-dependent because DNase treatment eliminated most fluorescence. These procedures are suitable for direct analysis of the bacteria in marine and freshwater samples without interference from algae, sediment, or most DNA-free organic particles. Cytograms indicated one or more clearly resolved subpopulations of bacteria of substantially smaller size and DNA content than the laboratory organisms typically classified.

Robertson BR, Button DK (1989) Characterizing Aquatic Bacteria According to Population, Cell-Size, and Apparent DNA Content by Flow-Cytometry. Cytometry 10 :70-76

<Go to ISI> ://A1989R751100011

Vaulot D, Courties C, Partensky F (1989) A simple method to preserve oceanic phytoplankton for flow cytometric analyses. Cytometry 10 :629-635


A simple method was developed to preserve marine phytoplankton populations so that delayed flow cytometric analyses could be performed. The method consisted of immediate fixation with 1% glutaraldehyde (final concentration) followed by storage in liquid nitrogen. The method was tested on individual algal species and on natural samples from both coastal and pelagic waters. In most cases, it caused little cell loss and preserved well both forward angle light scatter and chlorophyll fluorescence, but phycoerythrin fluorescence sometimes was significantly increased. The technique performed best for the small-sized picoplankton (below 2 microns) such as Synechococcus cyanobacteria or the newly discovered oceanic prochlorophytes. For larger-sized cells it had to be applied on a case by case basis as some fragile species, particularly dinoflagellates and cryptophytes, were poorly preserved.

Yentsch CM, Horan PK (1989) Cytometry in the aquatic sciences. Cytometry 10 :497-499